The 'Jacobite cause' and Scott´s Waverley
- Consequences for the Scottish identity?
Apart from the economic
improvements on the British Isles- including the widespread publishing
and distribution of magazines and papers- the Scottish Highlands, however,
remained predominantly rural and agricultural. Here nothing changed much,
and this may be seen as one explanation for the resulting gap between
the Lowlands and the Highlands. This 'Highland-Lowland distinction' will
also be focused in the course of this examination. Here we may point out
that there were positive and negative aspects of the Union, and most interesting,
Scotland became the first sovereign nation in European history to surrender
its independence voluntarily. No wars were fought, but the ruling Scottish
clans decided to join the parliamentary union with Westminster deliberately.
However, it was an unstable situation, and after the incorporating Union
the cultural situation in Scotland became desperately confused. This may
amplify that the Scots were looking for an identity, and all these political,
cultural and social facts are mentioned here to demonstrate that the period
of Scottish history Sir Walter Scott were born in was a time of indecision
and great change. Additionally, it explains why the Union- and the attitude
to it- was so crucial for the Scottish national identity. Now we will
look into the so-called 'Jacobite cause' because this issue determined
a certain type of Scottish national identity. The term 'Jacobite' derives
from the Latin word 'Jacobus' for James. Thus, 'Jacobites' were those
who were committed to a return of the Stuart dynasty , and 'Jacobitism'
in its day was bound with fundamental political, social and religious
issues and with ideas about the status of Scotland. In the context of
this analysis it is important to define 'Jacobitism' because the question
of support or non-support of the 'Jacobites' is most crucial for Scott´s
view of Scotland and its political situation. We have to consider that
in eighteenth century Scotland there was a clash between the old traditional
culture and the structures and systems of a new commercial society, and
the conflict between the 'Jacobites' and the Hanoverian regime served
as a supreme example of this cultural clash. The social change and the
process of cultural imperialism destroyed the 'old order' and marked a
new Scottish national identity. As McMaster finds 'Jacobite Scotland'
had been violent, economically irrational but homogeneous, and that 'Hanoverian
Scotland' was more rational. Despite the positive aspects of the Union,
nonetheless, it was a depressing situation for the Scots, and many Scotsmen
would not accept what many saw as an occupation. The struggle for independence
began right after 1707, and the 'Jacobite movement' benefited from the
dilemma that the sacrifice of the Union was too great for many Scots.
There were several attempts to reinstate the Stuarts on the throne and
altogether five rebellions of the 'Jacobites'- before and after the Union
(1689, 1708, 1715, 1719 and 1745). The reader has to bear in mind that
the evolving risings and the painful situation for the mainly Scottish
Catholic population, who predominately lived in the Highlands, had an
enormous impact on the era of Scott, on his work and on himself. This
exciting and insecure period of time was reality to him, and he would
probably not have written about the 'Scottish issue' in the way he did,
if these risings and especially the last attempt of the 'Jacobite Rebellion'
(1745) and the resulting 'Battle of Culloden' (1746) had not taken place.
In parts of his work he described the Scottish past and influenced in
the wake of his celebrity the future perception of the Scottish national
identity. Here in this analysis we will try to find answers to the question
what the changes meant to him, how he probably have seen the transformations
and- most crucially- how he would presumably have defined 'Scottishness'.
In order to achieve
this we need to have an even more detailed picture of his political reality.
To follow the chronological order after the last Stuart was deposed and
to set Scott´s Waverley into context the following historical facts
have to be added: the 'Act of Settlement' (1714) assigned the throne to
the German 'House of Hanover', and the Elector of Hanover became King
George I of Great Britain. The frequent absence of the new King led to
important changes in the way Britain was governed , and this had a shocking
effect on many Scotsmen because the Protestant King oppressed the Catholic
Highland population. This led to enormous tensions and the Scots had to
choose between the continued Hanoverian domination or a new Stuart King.
For many Scotsmen at this state of transition the main question, which
I call the 'Jacobite question', was under which king they wanted to live.
Even Scott had to discuss this specific query for himself, although he
had to evaluate this issue half a century later. This question, however,
would affect his perception of Scotland and is in so far relevant for
this examination. Now we will complete the context of 'the Stuart history'
in order to understand Scott´s perception of Scottish history better.
Since Britain was at odds with France, the latter power was willing to
sponsor an invasion on behalf of the Stuart dynasty. In July 1745, Charles
Edward Stuart ('the Young Pretender' or also called 'Bonnie Prince Charlie'),
who was the grandson of the deposed James VII, landed in Scotland without
substantial French aid. The modern army of 'civilized' Britain was for
a time in the 'Forty-Five' routed by the massed forces of the 'primitive
Highland' clans. His initial success owed much to the ineptitude of Britain´s
rulers. In the end, however, the leader of this planned upheaval was beaten
dramatically for William Augustus, the Duke of Cumberland (George II´s
second son) defeated the 'Jacobite army' in the battlefield of Culloden.
They were massacred in their thousands, but here it is more striking that
more Scots were fighting for the Government than were among the 'Jacobites´
side'. The reason for this was that the 'Jacobite matter' only had its
supporters in the Highlands, whereas many Scots began to deal with the
Union. In other words, 'Bonnie Prince Charlie' had more Scots- mainly
Lowlanders- against him than by his side. This is an indication for the
weak support of the majority of Scotsmen for the rebellion and explains
that many Scots were in favour of the Union and of Great Britain. We may
presume that the 'pro-Britain Scots' gained in numbers and this influenced
an emerging British national identity. After 1746 the Highlands were thoroughly
pacified in the interests of legal and political security , and the 'Young
Pretender' escaped to France and finally died in 1788 "sodden with
drink and disillusionment". Before 1745 the existence of the Highlanders
was faint and forgotten in England, and not even the civil wars in 1689,
1715 and 1719 had made much impression on the British public, but the
'Jacobite risings' from 1745/ 46 roused them "like a rattling peal
of thunder" as Scott himself points out. The main result of the 'Forty-five'
was the British Government`s decision to integrate Scotland- and particularly
the Scottish Highlands- more fully into the rest of the kingdom. Without
the suppression of the rebellion the dawn of civilization, which had brought
material progress and political liberty , would have probably not replaced
the system of Highland society. At the end, the Highland-inspired risings
failed to restore Scotland to separate status. Most important for the
Scottish national identity is the fact that 'Culloden' was the last convulsion
of an old, outmoded system. Politically, the country was after 1745/ 46
little more than a conquered province, and intellectually its literary
life was being overwhelmed by the fashions and standards of England. This
problematic situation would change- as this analysis will reveal- with
Sir Walter Scott and his impact on Scottish literature and culture. Furthermore,
the 'Battle of Culloden' was the last major land battle to occur in Great
Britain, and it was the conclusion to the 'Jacobite Rebellion' which aimed
to restore a Catholic monarchy to Britain. 'Catholicism' was in the British
area no longer in power- like 'Jacobitism' and probably Scotland itself.
As a result of the transitions many Scotsmen, especially Highlanders,
would be forced to emigrate which would emigrate which cut the Scottish
population to the quick. Furthermore, since the rebellion did not succeed
many Highland traditions were forbidden, e.g. the wearing of kilts was
banned (6 months prison for first offenders) because kilts were associated
with the overdetermined masculine practises of Highland robbery, war and
political rebellion. 'The Prospection Act' (1747) even forbade the wearing
of tartan in general until 1782. Obscurely, the playing of bagpipes was
made a punishable offence as well. Even the speaking of the Gaelic language
was prohibited by law, and the usage of Gaelic has been decreasing since.
All this was an attempt to erode distinctive Highland practises. These
examples are presented to illustrate again the distressing situation of
the Scots, and to sum up we can put down that national self-esteem was
offended to a great extent. Since the 'old identity'- expressed by Highland
traditions- completely vanished, the need for a 'new identity' emerged
rather desperately and urgently. Scott´s suggestions to fill this
gap represent a main goal of this examination.
The following passage
is another attempt to explain why the uprising broke out because the reasons
symbolize an important tessera to the understanding of Scott´s version
of Scottish national identity. As Brown asserts, the rising was a matter
of Scottish national pride for they insisted on the 'otherness' and on
their own subjectivity. Now it is important to define identity because
this concept is crucial for this analysis. 'Identity' may be defined as
the quality of being the same or- in other words- it may mean the essential
'oneness' of a person or nation. Here this would mean that many Scots
did not probably want to be 'British citizens' but Scots only. They identified
with the Scottish history and Highland traditions and have possibly seen
no need to change that identity. Another -sociological- definition is
that 'identity' means the general correspondence of a social pattern or
organization with the same characteristics or features. Applied to this
matter this could resolve that the Scots wanted to define their own nationhood
with their own patterns and organizations, but within this British context
it was rather problematic- almost impossible. Due to the past with all
its rebellions the 'British state' would probably have never allowed Scotland
to separate again and to have a 'home rule'. It would have been too dangerous
for the fragile 'construction of Britain'.
Now after having given
an overview of some relevant parts of Scottish history it is possible
to compare 'real historical events' with Scott´s 'Historical Novels',
which represent a "reinterpretation of the national history"
as Nairn claims. Ferris even calls the first novel of this series Waverley
a "national tale". Scott was well-known all over Europe and
to have been alive and literate in the nineteenth century was to have
been affected in some way by the 'Waverley Novels'. In these twenty-nine
novels he observed and described the world of social and political action
in early nineteenth century Britain, which was itself being subjected
to violent and far-reaching changes . As far as Lukacs is concerned are
Scott´s novels the demonstration of changing social and economic
conditions through the life of their characters. Furthermore, Scott invented
the so-called 'Historical Novel', which embodied the most important stages
of the whole of English history from medieval times to the beginning of
the nineteenth century in his writing. Being a Scotsman himself he touched
parts of the Scottish history as well. Scott dedicated three novels to
the 'Jacobite plot': Rob Roy, Redgauntlet and Waverley, whereas Redgauntlet
is romantic rather than rationalistic, and Waverley is obviously much
concerned with a judging and balancing of the 'old' and 'new' with all
the changes symbolized by Stuart and Hanover. The hero Edward Waverley
begins as a loyal servant
mode of depicting social totality and dramatizing historical change formed
the principle basis of nineteenth-century realism. The novel pictures
the historical facts, reflects on them and does not blur the reality of
Scottish history. All in all, Waverley represents a reflection from the
perspective of the English gentleman Edward Waverley in seventy-two chapters
on the 'Jacobite cause'. It is an example of the 'Bildungsroman' , the
story of a young man´s growing up, his struggle to arrive at some
understanding of the world and of himself. Scott´s subject is the
societal basis of personal identity too. He describes persons and their
individual behaviour and development in the specific society of 'post-´45
Scotland'. Waverley is an enlightened and rational man, and Scott also
believed above all in the rule of law as the only possible basis for a
civilized society. Many of Scott´s ideas were formed by the atmosphere
of enlightenment Edinburgh. Scott was a man of the 'Scottish Enlightenment',
which is no object of research in this analysis, who believed in progress,
rationality, moderation and reconciliation. He rejected dogmatism and
fanatism of whatever kind. Intellectually, he endorsed and upheld the
civilized Scotland of his own day. Scott, nevertheless, was both a sentimental
feudalist and a 'rational son' of 'the Enlightenment'. As we will see
this is no contradiction but only amplifies the ambivalent and complex
situation of this transitional period of time. Here the aim is to illustrate
the seemingly paradoxical attitude of Scott to his character Edward Waverley.
On the subject of 'Highland superstition', for instance, Waverley is consistently
sceptical, and- like probably Scott himself- thinks discerningly about
the 'Jacobite rising'. Scott may have been fascinated by 'Bonnie Prince
Charlie' and the 'Jacobite Rebellion', but he thought about the incidents
rationally, or as Hook formulates it Scott was "dazzled by no one
and nothing". Scott seems to struggle to find something picturesque
about the 'Jacobite cause', but he does by no means romanticize the matter.
In addition, he may have not been able to believe that any rational, level-headed
person could have decided to become a 'Jacobite' in 1745. At the age of
ten Scott became under the influence of 'Culloden' a "valiant Jacobite"
, but later in life- after having reflected on this issue- he changed
his opinion in favour of a rational approach. Furthermore, Scott is trying
to keep 'Culloden' and its horrific aftermath in the background and does
a lot of forgetting. He supplies what could be called a conventionally
happy 'novel ending'. The 'post-Culloden' desolation is not ignored in
Waverley but, nevertheless, softened. We may see that Edward Waverley
"forgets too much, too quickly, [...] and too easily". By describing
and judging the rebellion in this sense Waverley underlines his 'pro-British'
and conservative attitude to it. He rejected the radical ideas of the
'Jacobites' and relegated the seductive energies of 'Jacobitism' to the
past. His hero, however, is persistently tempted to give in to the fascination
of the 'Jacobite movement'. On the one hand, Waverley continually fails
to see the reality behind the picturesque. On the other hand, we find
an characterological roundness or realism, as the behaviour and the meaning
of him changes with his historical fortune. So does Scott for he 'wavers'
between personal memory and perception of real history. His character
Waverley 'wavers' ("His mind wavered [...]") - on Scott´s
behalf- between different visions of civil revolution , between referring
to his English background or succumbing to the Highland fascination. He
is hovering between the two worlds and decides to steer a middle course.
He is a vacillating hero. The name Waver-ley itself stands for the inability
to decide. He doubts all the time and is undecided whether he should travel,
which invitation he should accept, which woman he should marry etc.. He
symbolizes the situation in Scotland quite perfectly in so far as many
Scotsmen were undecided whether to support the Government or the 'Jacobites',
whether to stick to the old, feudal 'Scottish system' or to cope with
the new 'British system'. This, indeed, was the great dilemma for many
Scots - as we have seen- and marked the Scottish national identity.
We may assume that
many Scots themselves 'wavered' between different identities. In Waverley
we have the 'marriage' of English and Scottish Lowland aristocracies-
represented by Edward and Rose Bradwardine in the end , and this depicts
a rational approach to Scottish history because this tallies with reality.
The rule of law and justice had- in Scott´s view- been seriously
threatened by the 'Jacobite risings' in 1745/ 46, and this illustrates
perfectly the assertion that he had a conservative attitude. Scott did
not support the ideas of the rebellions against the 'British system' and
Now I would like return
to the 'Battle of Culloden' because it contains a significant function
for Scotland´s transformation as a whole. In Waverley, however,
the battle itself only plays a minor part, or -as Gordon points out- Scott
even barely mentions 'Culloden'. It is mainly brought up in the last chapter,
but nevertheless the complexity of the 'Jacobite conflict' is shown in
detail. Nonetheless, it is still remarkable that the decisive battle is
only described in one chapter out of seventy-two in Waverley. Obviously,
the battle itself is not so essential to Scott, and this indicates that
the destiny of the leading characters in this novel is in the centre of
his focus. He is rather interested in portraying the figures in a detailed
way, and consequently Edward Waverley´s complexity of thoughts and
attitudes is fully described in Waverley. This fact gives us the foundation
to evaluate Scott´s attitude to the 'Jacobite cause' and from that
we are able to deduce speculations on his position on a Scottish national
identity. In the novel Waverley had acquaintance with 'Bonnie Prince Charlie'
and respected and even admired the romantic leader of the 'Jacobite Rebellion',
before he later changed his opinion on this political issue. First Waverley
reveals aversion to the Union and was at least in favour of 'Jacobitism'
though. Now we can assume that Scott himself was fascinated by 'Jacobitism'
and- most of all- by 'Highlandism'. This term will be defined in this
examination because there is no entry in the dictionaries. We may assert
that it is like 'Highlandry', which means all Highlanders collectively
. Scott- being a Lowlander himself- showed a warm interest in this strange
and primitive culture.}
was most likely captivated by Highland traditions and the picturesque
landscape. By portraying a romantic image of the Highlands and its culture
in Waverley, he develops a dangerous construction. The 'Highland world'
was not so peaceful and unproblematic as it is presented in Waverley.
Especially his enthusiasm for the landscape and for the traditions may
convey a blurred image of reality. As a matter of fact the 'Highland world'
with its clan system was rather problematic, aggressive and dangerous
and the Government had the Highlands cleared of their traditions. By 1780
the Highland dress seemed extinct for it and the other symbols of 'Highlandism'
like backpipes, tartans etc. were forbidden for political reasons. Scott
invented 'Highlandism' as a new tradition though, and by doing so he founded
the basis for a new Scottish identity. Moreover, 'Highlandism' began to
manifest itself in an evolving 'British consciousness'. Amazingly, his
risky construction of a new 'Scottishness' with faked old traditions-
which were reinvented by him- actually worked, and thus he considerably
contributed to the Scottish national identity of his time.
The following example
confirms this thesis: Scott had wished the royal visit of George IV- the
son of George III- to be a 'gathering of the Gael', and many clansmen
and Highlanders solemnly paraded in the acceptance of the 'kilt' as the
national dress of Scotland before the monarch. This reveals that Highland
traditions became acceptable again. Moreover, before the novel Waverley
had been published Highlanders were regarded as men beyond the pale of
civilization, as a "crew of ungrateful villains, savages and traitors"
, and Scottish traditions were slowly vanishing in the wake of this stigma.
Scott, however, reinvented and revived them. He even promoted enormously
the popularization of Highland travel, which became fashion to upper-class
travellers like his concept of 'Highlandism' was soon fashionable. Since
Scott the Highlands have no longer been wild but wildly-romantic and the
Highlanders no longer dangerous but noble and loyal. Another reason for
the fact that the Highlands and the 'old clan system' again returned to
consciousness in Scotland was that the gradual fading of memories of the
'Jacobite risings' encouraged the celebration of the culture of the clans,
and by writing about 'clanship' Scott injected Scottish society with a
new- or in a way old -sense of identity. He gave birth to a pathos which
has sustained a sense of nationhood in a country without statehood. He
generated images of Scotland because he feared that Scotland might become
invisible. People who lose their identity create a legend to take its
place and so did the Scots after the 'Act of Union' and the 'Jacobite
Rebellion' of 1745/ 46. Scott brought 'his traditions' into being or-
as the historian Eric Hobsbawn finds out- traditions were made when they
were demanded. Scott set himself to carry on a tradition which was not
a tradition. He just invented it, and by doing that I dare say now that
he invented a new Scottish national identity. Obviously, it was a construction
first- for Scott created "air castles" as Bann describes- but
then it became reality to many Scotsmen. We can quite rightly maintain
that with Waverley Scottish Highland traditions were rediscovered- a kind
of 'reincarnation', or as Trumpener states Waverley is about "national
discovery and homecoming". After 1746 Britain was to establish itself
culturally, but with Scott´s rediscovery and reinvention of 'Highlandism'
this development was interrupted or it presumably even stopped. This is
at least true for the Highlands or 'North Britain'. Eventually, nevertheless,
this fascination for Highland traditions did not gain acceptance, and
in the end of the novel the regional culture of Highland society is shown
to have been superseded by more civilized codes of behaviour. This antithetical
statement may contradict the former theses, but it only displays the complexity
of an issue like 'identity'. Britain, which had to define its identity,
was enriched - due to Scott- by an additional factor: 'Highlandism'.
The following passage
represents an antithesis to the former assumption that conservative Scott
rejected the 'Jacobite movement' as a whole. When Scott started to write
the 'Waverley Novels' the 'new world' was not yet as firmly established
in Scotland, but it was too late for him to become a 'Jacobite'- except
in his imagination, so he let Waverley do it for him. Daiches´ remark
is most important because it demonstrates that the protagonist Edward
Waverley stands in one way or another for the novelist Sir Walter Scott
himself, i.e. that Waverley´s standpoint on the 'Scottish issue'
sometimes corresponds with Scott´s opinion. It is rather speculative
and lacks academic thinking though to state that Waverley and Scott can
be seen as one person. After all, Waverley is a fictional novel, and Edward
Waverley is a character invented by the writer Scott. It may be seen,
however, as an indicator for the direction of his attitude. Now I carry
on examining this point and I am trying to illustrate similarities of
Scott and his hero as far as their view on to the 'Jacobite cause' is
concerned: Scott´s attitude to the 'Jacobites' seems to be at first
sight in favour of the Highlanders because he identifies Edward with himself
in his General Preface. At the beginning Edward Waverley is -like Scott-
fascinated and seduced by 'Jacobite glamor', but later he avoids sharing
his former comrades´ fate by not joining the 'Culloden Highland
forces' and by making his peace with the Hanoverian Government. Scott
also never decided to join military forces of any kind because he was
a peaceful man. He was shocked when he was told about the "cruelties
exercised in the executions [
] in the Highlands after the 'Battle
of Culloden'" , but still he rejected 'Jacobite' aggression. His
Waverley changes- probably on behalf of him- in the course of the novel:
first he sympathizes with the 'Young Pretender' ("A prince to live
and die under" ), and, moreover, he even kneels to Charles Edward
and devotes "his heart and sword to the vindication of his rights".
Then, however, he reflects on it and concludes not to agree with the ideals
of the leader of the rebellion any more. He does an about-turn in favour
of the concept of a civilized Britain. In this context Mack claims that
Scott´s novel helped consolidate the British state by explaining
Scotland to England and by reconciling Scotland to the Union. Names such
as Hanover Street, George Street etc. in both Edinburgh and Glasgow proclaim
the loyalty of the urban elites to Great Britain and the Hanoverian dynasty.
At the same time, Scott´s Waverley -more than any other single influence-
made 'Jacobitism' acceptable- and even more, made it romantic and appealing.
According to Siebert Scott only sees 'Bonnie Prince Charlie' with an romantic eye and from the poetic perspective. It represents the process of reminding the Scottish people of their distinctively Scottish associations. They had a adequate distance from the Union and recognized the value of remaining Scottish spiritually. With Waverley he constructs a new but also risky identity. It was a combination of 'old' and 'new' Scotland, i.e. Scott created a fiction which expresses some sympathy with his hero´s openness to the appeal of the 'Jacobite cause'. In the end the hero has to grow up though, i.e. he has to choose reality rather than romance. The marriage of the Englishman Waverley and his Scottish bride reflects this quite precisely. It also depicts- like Mack maintains- a future in which national unity is achieved through the healing of old divisions. To sum up these old divisions in Scott´s day were between the 'Jacobite' and Hannoverian Government, the High- and Lowlander distinction, and, last but not least, between Scotsmen and Englishmen. In Waverley the protagonist loves Flora, who stands for the old 'feudal clan system', but he eventually weds Rose, who represents the 'British system'. This inevitably marriage illustrates Scott´s view that in 'his Britain' there was no space for old divisions. It depicts the bonding of the 'old' and 'new' world. For him the 'Jacobite Rebellion' was a conflict of civilization and the state of nature, of the 'Highlands' and the 'Lowlands' and of regionalism or localism and the 'concept of Great Britain'. Edward Waverley is a symbol of this conflict and stands commitment to prudence and superiority of civil society, and he also portrays the modern and conservative model of it. Thus, Scott probably also supported the 'modern concept'.
From his earliest years Scott had been fascinated both by the tactics and technique of war and by romantic ideas of glory. However, at the same time, he was fully conscious of the futility and waste of war and always was in favour of peace and stability. Scott thought that militant 'Jacobitism' was "madness" because he was against any form of violence at all. He once stated: "We had better remain in Union with England, even at the risk of becoming a subordinate species of Northumberland, as far as national consequences are concerned". This again amplifies his strong aversion to revolts and the acceptance of a peaceful Great Britain. As Gordon claims Scott was an unusually peaceful man , and, consequently, the hero of Waverley was longing for peace as well. Hook asserts that Waverley depicts the most "powerful image of the true meaning of civil war- the anarchy, the senseless violence and ruin it produces" to stress the senselessness of aggression. In Waverley one chapter is called 'An Incident Gives Rise To Reflections' (Chapter Forty-Fifth) and this incident is the death of an English soldier, which Waverley happened to witness while he was fighting for the Highland Army. Watching him dying the hero reflected on the senseless situation of war. Waverley speaks ultimately for peace and stability, for social and political harmony. This again underlines Scott´s peaceful- almost pacifistic- attitude. He points out that a handful of men had disturbed the tranquillity of a peaceful people who were demanding no change of their condition. Scott sees 'Jacobitism' not as a political faith but as an older way of life and as a different culture , so he has his hero not succumb to the attraction of this fascinating 'old world'. Waverley, nevertheless, emphazises that he is "no Scotchman but an unfortunate English gentleman". This seemingly contradiction to the thesis that Waverley- and probably Scott himself- were fascinated by 'Highlandism' is actually no inconsistency but only an indication of the complicated English-Scottish relationship. Waverley regarded himself as both an Englishman and a moderate- by no means radical- supporter of the 'Jacobite movement'. As opposed to that, however, Grey demonstrates that the hero himself was seized as a 'Jacobite' and got into trouble. Here the protagonist differs entirely from Sir Walter Scott because the novelist had never been identified with the 'Jacobites'. At the beginning of the nineteenth century 'this movement' was history already, the Union for more than a century fulfilled and the 'House of Hanover' established in the fourth generation. Nevertheless, one of the most important opposites in Scott is his attitude to 'Jacobitism' because he thought a great deal of it and made it the subject of three of his best novels. Furthermore, like in Scott´s historical reality the 'Jacobite cause' was lost forever as Redgauntlet had to proclaim in Scott´s novel Redgauntlet. To sum up we may conclude that Sir Walter Scott constructed a version of Scottish cultural and national identity in the 'Waverley series of novels'. He added to the romance the factor 'Highlandism', may have omitted 'Jacobitism' and (re)-invented old and new traditions.
© 2008 The Robert Burns World Federation